The Modern Periodic Table
The systematic arrangement of elements into groups and periods is called periodic table.
In 1913, Henry Moseley showed that the atomic number of an element is a more fundamental property than its atomic mass.
So Mendeleev’s Periodic law was modified and atomic number was adopted as the basis of the Modern Periodic Table.
The Modern Periodic Law is stated as: “Properties of elements are a periodic functions of their atomic number”. Atomic number is the basis for modern periodic table.
Atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus, it is also equal to the number of electrons in the atom.
Example: In Carbon
The main features of modern periodic table:
- Elements are arranged in the increasing order of atomic numbers.
- Horizontal rows in the periodic table are called periods and vertical columns in the table are called groups.
- Elements in the modern periodic table are arranged in 7 periods and 18 groups.
Filled orbitals and number of elements in different periods:
|Period||Nature of period||Filled orbitals||Number of electrons accomdated||Strating -Last element||Number of elements|
|1||Shortest period||1s||2||Hydrogen – Helium||2|
|2||Short period||2s 2p||2 + 6||Lithium – Neon||8|
|3||Short period||3s 3p||2 + 6||Sodium – Argon||8|
|4||Long period||4s 3d 4p||2 + 10 + 6||Potassium – Krypton||18|
|5||Long period||5s 4d 5p||2 + 10 + 6||Rubidium – Xenon||18|
|6||Longest period||6s 5d 4f 5d 7p||2 + 1 + 14 + 9 + 6||Cesium – Radon||32|
|7||Longest period||7s 6d 5f 6d 7p||2 + 1 + 14 + 9 + 6||Francium – Uuo||32|
Elements were classified into groups based on the number of valence electrons.
According to IUPAC nomenclature the 18 groups in modern periodic table are numbered as 1 to 18.
Types of elements:
The elements in the modern periodic table were classified into four types. They are
Inner transition elements
The elements of group -1, group-2 and group-13 to group-17 are the representative elements.
Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium and Francium are the elements of this group. Their general electronic configuration is ns1.
These elements have one electron in their valence shell.
This group elements are also known as alkali metals as the hydroxides of these group elements are basic in nature and soluble in water.
Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium and Radium are the elements of this group. Their general electronic configuration is ns2.
These elements have two electrons in their valence shell.
The hydroxides of these group elements are basic in nature and soluble in water. These elements obtained from earth crust because of these reasons these elements are called as alkaline earth metals.
Boron, Aluminium, Gallium, Indium and Thallium are the elements of this group. Their general electronic configuration is ns2np1.
These elements have three electrons in their valence shell.
These group elements mostly form covalent compounds.
Carbon, Silicon, Germanium and Tin are the elements of this group. Their general electronic configuration is ns2np2.
These elements have four electrons in their valence shell.
Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuth are the elements of this group. Their general electronic configuration is ns2np3.
These elements have five electrons in their valence shell.
These group elements are also called as pnictogens.
Oxygen, Sulphur, Selenium, Tellurium and Polonium are the elements of this group. Their general electronic configuration is ns2np4.
These elements have six electrons in their valence shell.
This group elements are also known as chalcogens.
Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine and Astatine are the elements of this group. Their general electronic configuration is ns2np5.
These elements have seven electrons in their valence shell.
This group elements are also called as halogens.
Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Radon and Xenon are elements of this. This group also referred as zero group. Their general electronic configuration is ns2np6.
These elements have eight electrons (octet configuration) in their valence shell.
This group elements are also known as inert gas elements.
Elements which contains incomplete penultimate ((n-1) : d -sub shell) shell with electrons are called transition elements. Elements present between the group -2 and group-13 in the modern periodic table are the transition elements. In transition elements the valency electrons goes to d – sub shell.
General electronic configuration of transition elements is ns2 (n-1)d 1-10.
Transition elements are classified into four series of elements.
They are 3d- series (1st transition series), 4d –series (2nd transition series), 5d – Series (3rd transition series) & 6d – series (4th transition series).
Lanthanides and actinides:
Elements which kept kept separately under the table in two seperate rows in the Modern periodic table are called lanthanides and actindes.
These elements contains incomplete anti-penultimate shells ((n-2): f -sub shells). So these elements are also called as inner transition elements.
General electronic configuration lanathanides and actindies is (n-2) f1-14 (n-1)d0-1 ns2.
Position of Hydrogen in the periodic table:
There is an anomaly when it comes to the position of Hydrogen in the periodic table as it can be placed either in group I or 17 group of the first period.
Reasons for abnormality regarding the position of hydrogen:
Hydrogen can show properties similar to alkali metals and it has one electron in it valence shell just similar to alkali metals.
Just similar to alkali metals it loses one electron to form cation.
Similar to alkali metals it combines with Oxygen, Sulphur and Halogens to form similar compounds.
Hydrogen shows similar properties to halogens.
It exists as a diatomic molecule (H2). Just similar to halogens which exists as X2 (X =F, Cl, Br, I).
Hydrogen combines with metals and non-metals to form covalent compounds.
Hydrogen combines with metals to form metal hydrides just similar to halogens which forms halides with metals.
H2 + 2Na → 2NaH
Cl2 + 2Na →2NaCl
Because of the above reasons there is uncertainty regarding the position of hydrogen.