For 11th Class the chemistry syllabus is :
characteristics of three states of matter; elements, compounds and mixtures; SI base units and list some commonly used prefixes; use scientific notations ; difference between precision and accuracy; determine significant figures; conversion physical quantities from one system of units to another; various laws of chemical combination; appreciate significance of atomic mass, average atomic mass, molecular mass and formula mass; mole and molar mass; calculation of mass per cent of different elements constituting a compound; empirical formula and molecular formula for a compound from the given experimental data; the stoichiometric calculations.
discovery of electron, proton and neutron and their characteristics; Rutherford and Bohr atomic models; the quantum mechanical model of atom; nature of electromagnetic radiation and Planck’s quantum theory; the photoelectric effect ; atomic spectra; state the de Broglie relation and Heisenberg uncertainty principle; an atomic orbital in terms of quantum numbers; aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity; write the electronic configurations of atoms.
The Periodic Law; The significance of atomic number and electronic configuration as the basis for periodic classification; naming of the elements with Z >100 according to IUPAC nomenclature; classsify elements into s, p, d, f blocks and learn their main characteristics; recognise the periodic trends in physical and chemical properties of elements; the reactivity of elements and correlate it with their occurrence in nature; the relationship between ionization enthalpy and metallic character; atomic/ ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence of elements.
the octet rule and its limitations, Lewis structures of simple molecules; different types of bonds;
the VSEPR theory and predict the geometry of simple molecules; the valence bond approach for the formation of covalent bonds; the directional properties of covalent bonds; types of hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals and draw shapes of simple covalent molecules; the molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules; the concept of hydrogen bond.
States of Matter
Different states of matter in terms of balance between intermolecular
forces and thermal energy of particles; the laws governing behaviour of ideal gases;
apply gas laws in various real life situations; The behaviour of real gases;
The conditions required for liquifaction of gases; difference between gaseous
state and vapours; properties of liquids in terms of intermolecular attractions.
System and surroundings; difference between close, open and isolated systems; internal energy, work and heat; first law of thermodynamics ; Energy changes as work and heat contributions in chemical systems; state functions: U, H ; standard states for change in enthalpy; calculate enthalpy changes for various types of reactions; Hess’s law of constant heat summation; extensive and intensive properties; spontaneous and non- spontaneous processes; entropy and its application for spontaneity; Gibbs energy change and spontaneity, change in Gibbs energy and equilibrium constant.
dynamic nature of equilibrium involved in physical and chemical processes; the law of equilibrium; characteristics of equilibria involved in physical and chemical processes; expressions for equilibrium constants; relationship between Kp and Kc; factors that affect the equilibrium state of a reaction; acids or bases according to Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis concepts;
the dependence of degree of ionization on concentration of the electrolyte and that of the common ion; pH scale for representing hydrogen ion concentration; ionisation of water and its duel role as acid and base; ionic product (Kw ) and pKw for water; buffer solutions; solubility product constant.
redox reactions ; define the terms oxidation, reduction, oxidant (oxidising agent) and reductant (reducing agent); mechanism of redox reactions by electron transfer process; use the concept of oxidation number to identify oxidant and reductant in a reaction; classification of redox reactions in to combination (synthesis), decomposition, displacement and disproportionation reactions; Balance chemical equations using (i) oxidation number (ii) half reaction method
the position of hydrogen in the periodic table; occurrence and preparation of dihydrogen on a small and commercial scale; isotopes of hydrogen; Hydrides and its types; the structure of water and its physical and chemical properties; difference between ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ water and water softening; heavy water and its importance; the structure of hydrogen peroxide, its preparatory methods and properties
the general characteristics of the alkali metals and their compounds; the general characteristics of the alkaline earth metals and their compounds; the manufacture, properties and uses of industrially important sodium and calcium compounds including Portland cement; the biological significance of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium.
the general trends in the chemistry of p-block elements; the trends in physical and chemical properties of group 13 and 14 elements; anomalous behaviour of boron and carbon; allotropic forms of carbon; the chemistry of some important compounds of boron, carbon and silicon; the important uses of group 13 and 14 elements and their compounds.
General Organic Chemistry
structures of organic molecules ; classify the organic compounds; IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds ; the concept of organic reaction mechanism; Electronic Effects ; the types of organic reactions; the techniques of purification of organic compounds; the chemical reactions involved in the qualitative analysis of organic compounds; the principles involved in quantitative analysis of organic compounds.
hydrocarbons, IUPAC system of nomenclature; structures of isomers of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and aromatic hydrocarbons; methods of preparation of hydrocarbons; distinguish between alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and aromatic hydrocarbons on the basis of physical and chemical properties; conformations of ethane; the formation of the addition products of unsymmetrical alkenes and alkynes on the basis of electronic mechanism; the structure of benzene, aromaticity and mechanism of electrophilic substitution reactions of benzene; the directive influence of substituents in monosubstituted benzene ring;
the meaning of environmental chemistry; atmospheric pollution, reasons for global warming. Green house effect and acid rain; causes for ozone layer depletion and its effects; for water pollution and international standards for drinking water; causes of soil pollution; strategies for control of environmental pollution